What Causes Nasal Polyps?
What Causes Nasal Polyps?
Not being entirely understood, scientists and the medical community do not know why some people produce nasal polyps and others do not. Chronic inflammation in the lining of the sinuses and nose seems to start the polyp formation.
It is suggested with some evidence that this is an immune system response unlike the immune system’s response for those not developing nasal polyps.
The immune system for people who develop polyps seems to have different chemical markers in their mucous membranes promoting polyp growth.
Nasal polyps usually appear in middle-aged adults and the young, yet can develop at all ages.
They are noncancerous fleshy and puffy enlargements of different sizes in the nose. They are brownish yellow, greyish, or can be pinkish, looking similar to grapes on a stalk that join to the nose lining, frequently in both nostrils.
One side only being affected is not usual. Polyps also appear in the sinuses in the face and skull. They are located primarily in the sinuses close to the eyes and nose.
If left untreated they can become quite large blocking the natural flow of air through the sinus passage. In rare instances, some sufferers experience migraines, blurred vision and total blockage of the nasal cavities inhibiting breathing.
This stage generally needs some form of medical action and possibly surgery to rectify.
Nasal Polyps and Inflammation
Inflammation seems to be the underlying factor in nasal polyp sufferers. Fluid accumulates in the mucous membranes which has been triggered by inflammation. When the cells become full of fluid the membrane lining appears to protrude forming what becomes nasal polyps.
They can appear as a cluster or as a single polyp. This condition is not a disease and no one seems to know why the inflammation occurs.
Several concepts have been proposed for what causes nasal polyps, with any combination of the following accounting for the development of polyps:
- Inflammation is an immune response to infections such as viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens
- Allergic reactions to environmental pollution
- Genetic inheritance where DNA is passed from parents or ancestors increasing risk
- Faulty immune system that attacks and irritates membranes causing inflammation creating polyps
What Causes Nasal Polyps – Other Factors
Several conditions might encourage and intensify the conditions for what causes nasal polyps to grow. (Colon/uterine polyps have no connection with nasal polyps.)
- Adult asthma (starts as an adult not in childhood)—and people (20-40%) with nasal polyps have asthma
- Allergens (pet dander, pollen, trees, grasses, molds, smoke, dust) can cause symptoms that seem like a cold
- Cystic Fibrosis individuals (25%) will be affected with nasal polyps
- Inability to take Aspirin
- Sinus infections
- Respiratory infections
Polyps can be seen in the nostrils when they are large, but most cases will only be visible to a doctor or surgeon doing a nasal inspection.
They look like gelatin in the shape of elongated grapes. The nasal bridge (between eyes) can broaden in people with long established nasal polyps.
This widening of the nasal bridge gives the appearance that the eyes are set apart farther and can be quite painful to touch.
When they get to this stage breathing is extremely difficult through the nose and most patients end up mouth breathing, especially during sleep.
This also leads to poor sleep with many interruptions to your sleep pattern at night leaving you feeling extremely jet-lagged throughout the day.
It is very important to seek treatment early for a higher chance of success in beating this debilitating condition.
If you are unsure or think you may symptoms of a sinus infection or developing nasal polyps you should seek professional help for diagnosing your condition and for what causes nasal polyps.